Other misunderstandings relate to how the CO₂ emissions performance of OEMs is assessed. It would be reasonable to expect all vehicles to be treated equally, but the EU has in fact introduced a system of ‘super credits’ in which ultra-low carbon vehicles (ULCVs) count more heavily towards the targets. Therefore, selling plug-in hybrid (PHEVs) or battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) will be an important way for OEMs to offset their existing high-carbon vehicles over the next few years.
Moreover, the 2020 target only takes 95% of the total sales into account – so OEMs are currently able to make their results look better by leaving out the 5% of vehicles with the highest emissions. Perhaps even more surprisingly, OEMs can pool their average CO₂ emissions with other OEMs. For example, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) has signed a deal with Tesla to benefit from the super credits of Tesla’s fully electric fleet in achieving its own targets.